Bio-Organic Chemistry Division

Bioorganic chemistry (BOC) applies the principles of organic chemistry to decipher problems of various biological events, taking inspiration from biology to develop new chemical processes.

Different research activities carried out at BOC division are summarized in figure 1 as a flow chart.

Figure 1: Different research activities pursued at Bio-Organic Chemistry Division.



Carbohydrates play important roles in many biological processes, rendering the development of efficient synthetic methods toward carbohydrates crucial for glycobiology research. Some of the novel methodologies carried out at CSIR-IIIM Jammu are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Some of the representative examples of compounds synthesized using glycoscience



Drug delivery involves the development of polymeric systems to carry small molecular weight therapeutics at specific sites by passive targeting as well as active targeting. The prerequisite for such polymeric therapeutics is to release the drug at targeted sites with maximizes the drug release by pH or enzyme-based degradation. Further, Diversity Oriented Synthesis (DOS) of natural products were being carried out for the discovery of novel, biologically interesting small molecules. Some representative examples are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Medicinal chemistry of some drug molecules




Biotransformation has received increasing attention for the synthesis of compounds of pharmaceutical importance. It has several distinctive features as compared to chemical catalysis due to its non-toxic nature, high chemoselectivity and regioselectivity.

RSC Med. Chem., 2020, 11,142

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Aldol product of Kojic acid isolated from Aspergillus Flavus as given in figure 4.



D. Mukherjee et al Tet. Lett., 2014, 55, 5846-5848

 Figure 4: Enzymatic resolution of compound 4a using commercially available enzymes.



The biotransformation of amino acids into biologically active molecules are challenges faced to implement the basic scientific knowledge to Chemical Process Research and Development (CPR&D) of generic drugs targeted for global market is getting complex like never before due to continuously emerging patent landscape, increased competition, regulatory problems and the cost pressure. The “need for innovation” scenario is more “driven and dictated by Intellectual Property (IP), which has thereby compelled scientists to think out of the box to overcome these challenges. For a successful drug discovery, it is necessary that a drug should be affordable where the route of synthesis is novel, straightforward and environmentally benign. development of new synthetic methodologies as well as process development of three key but expensive lifesaving drugs namely Dapagliflozin (antidiabetic), Sofosbuvir (anti-HCV) , Delamanid (anti-TB) and EIDD-1931 (anti-COVID19).

Development of novel methodologies using photoredox catalyst to synthesize medicinally important compounds are one of major thrust area and some of the representative examples are shown below

  • Biotransformation of natural products and drugs using enzymes to generate drug metabolites or medicinally important compounds.
  • Carbohydrates as chiral pool material to synthesize medicinally important compounds against specific targets
  • Development of non-infringing routes for API synthesis
  • Development of novel routs for targeted drug delivery
  • Development of new methodologies for the synthesis of pharmaceutically important molecules
  • Glycoscience
  • API synthesis
  • Photoredox catalysis
  • Drug delivery
  • List of research facilities/ infrastructure available

Following are the instruments which are being used for various kind of analysis:

Dr Debaraj Mukherjee
Principal Scientist

Dr. Payare Lal Sangwan
Principal Scientist

Dr Bhahwal A. Shah
Senior Scientist

Dr. Ravi Shankar
Senior Scientist

Dr. Buddh Singh
Sr. Technical Officer(II)


  • Dengue Herbal Project (Advanced Phase, Sun Pharma Limited)
  • Novel Strategy to Generate Drug Like Marine Natural Product Library to Discover Bioactive Compounds (SERB)
  • Fermentation Based Process Development for Production of Tacrolimus Drug (ICMR)
  • Effect of Epigenetic Modifiers on Secondary Metabolite Production in Drug Producing Fungi (SERB)
  • CSIR-Phytopharmaceutical Mission (CSIR)
  • CSIR-Sickle Cell Anaemia Mission (CSIR)
  • CSIR-Aroma Mission (CSIR)
  • Phytopharmaceutical Development of Ficus semicordata -Ham. Ex Sm. as per regulatory guidelines of DCGI (under the phytopharmaceutical   Mission for North East Region (GAP 2180)
  • Discovery of target based novel bioactive natural products from high altitude plants Hippophae rhamnoids (Sebuckthorn) and Grewia asiatica (phalsa) for achieving the pharmacological and cosmetic effects against ultraviolet radiation induced skin damage (photo ageing/ carcinogenesis) (GAP-2167)
  • Development of Phytopharmaceutical product for bovine mastitis (GAP-2141)
  • Creation of national repository of pure natural products (MLP-4013)
  • Natural Product Chemistry and Pharmacology of Medicinal Plants (MLP-4012)
  • Development of Phytopharmaceutical product for bovine mastitis (GAP-2141)
  • Creation of national repository of pure natural products (MLP-4013)
  • Natural Product Chemistry and Pharmacology of Medicinal Plants (MLP-4012)
Authors Title Journal
Faheem Rasool and Debaraj Mukherjee* Pd-Catalyzed Regio- and Stereoselective C‑Nucleoside Synthesis from Unactivated Uracils and Pyranoid Glycals Org. Lett. 2017, 19, 4936−4939
Monika Bhardwaj, Shifali Chib, Loveleena Kaur, Amit Kumar, Bhabatosh Chaudhuri,* Fayaz Malik, Ram A. Vishwakarma, Saurabh Saran * and Debaraj Mukherjee* Conversion of amino acids to aryl/heteroaryl ethanol metabolites using human CYP2D6-expressing live baker’s yeast RSC Med. Chem., 2020, 11, 142
Monika Bhardwaj, FaheemRasool, MadhuBabuTatina, and Debaraj Mukherjee*


Construction of Fused Oxabicyclic Scaffolds from Glycals and Styrenes via One-Pot Domino Transformations. Organic. Letters,2019, 21, 3038−3042.
M. R. Lambu, S. Kumar, S. K. Yousuf, D. K. Sharma, A. Hussain, A. Kumar, F. Malik, Debaraj Mukherjee*


“Medicinal chemistry of dihydropyran based medium ring macrolides related to aspergillides: selective inhibition of PI3K-alpha” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2013, 56, 6122–6135.
Deepak K. Sharma, Sundeep Jaglan & Debaraj Mukherjee* Isolation and conversion of Penicillic acid to 6- iodo-α -pyran-2,5-dione: A key intermediate for the synthesis of Pectinolide F Synthetic Communications, 2016, 46, 902-908.
Faheem Rassol, Debashis, Anindya Goswami and Debaraj Mukherjee Regiospecific Synthesis of Ring A Fused Withaferin A Isoxazoline Analogues: Induction of Premature Senescence by W-2b in Proliferating Cancer Cells.


Nature Scientific Reports, 2017, 7, 13749.
S.K. Rath, S. Singh, S. Kumar, N.A. Wani, R. Rai, I.A. Khan, S. Koul, and P.L. Sangwan. Synthesis of (E)-3-(1-chloro-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl) acrylic acid substituted amino acid ester derivatives as inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump to combat antimicrobial resistance. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2020, 27(2). 343-353
P.K. Chinthakindi, S.K. Rath, J. Singh, S. Singh, S. Koul, and P.L. Sangwan. Isolation of isoxanthanol and synthesis of novel derivatives as potential cytotoxic agents. Med. Chem. Res. 2017, 26(10), 2499-2513.
N.A. Dangroo, J. Singh, S.K. Rath, N. Gupta, A. Qayum, S. Singh, and P.L. Sangwan. A convergent synthesis of novel alkyne–azide cycloaddition congeners of betulinic acid as potent cytotoxic agent. Steroids, 2017, 123, 1-12.
N. Gupta, S.K. Rath, A. Qayum, J. Singh, S. Singh, and P.L. Sangwan Synthesis of novel benzylidene analogues of betulinic acid as potent cytotoxic agents. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2017, 135, 517-530.
N.A. Dangroo, J. Singh, N. Gupta, S.K. Singh, A. Koul, M.A. Khuroo, and P.L. Sangwan. T- and B-cell immunosuppressive activity of novel α-santonin analogs with humoral and cellular immune response in mice. Med. Chem. Comm. 2017, 8, 211-219.
A.A. Dar, N.A. Dangroo, A. Raina, A. Qayum, S.K. Singh, A. Kumar, and P.L. Sangwan. Biologically active xanthones from Codonopsis ovata. Phytochem. 2016, 132, 102-108.
N. Gupta, S. Sharma, A. Raina, N.A. Dangroo, S. Bhushan, and P.L. Sangwan. Synthesis and anti-proliferative evaluation of novel 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-oxazine derivatives of bakuchiol. RSC Adv. 2016, 6(108) 106150-106159
A.A. Dar, P.L. Sangwan, I. Khan, N. Gupta, A. Qaudri, S.A. Tasduq, S. Kitchlu, A.K. Sharma, and S. Koul. Simultaneous quantification of eight bioactive secondary metabolites from Codonopsis ovata by validated high performance thin layer chromatography and their antioxidant profile. J. Pharma. Biomed. Anal. 2014, 100: 300-8.
J. Kumar, A. Ahmad, M.A. Rizvi, B.A. Shah* Photoredox-Mediated Synthesis of Functionalized Sulfoxides from Terminal Alkynes  

Org. Lett. 2020, 22, 5661–5665 

S.Sultan, M. S. Bhat, M. A. Rizvi, B.A. Shah*


Visible Light-Mediated [2 + 2] Cycloaddition Reactions of 1,4-Quinones and Terminal Alkynes  

J. Org. Chem. 2019, 84, 8948-8958

N.Chalotra, M. A. Rizvi, B. A. Shah*


Photoredox-Mediated Generation of gem-Difunctionalized Ketones: Synthesis of α,α-Aminothioketones  

Org. Lett. 2019, 21, 4793-4797


N. Chalotra, A. Ahmed, M. A. Rizvi, Z.Hussain, Q. N. Ahmed, B.A. Shah* Photoredox Generated Vinyl Radicals: Synthesis of Bisindoles and β-Carbolines  

J. Org. Chem. 2018, 83, 14443-14456

S. Sultan, M. A. Rizvi, J. Kumar,  B.A. Shah*


Acyl Radicals from Terminal Alkynes: Photoredox- Catalyzed Acylation of Heteroarenes  

Chem. Eur. J. 2018, 24, 10617 – 10620

Divya Dheer, Chittaranjan Behera, Davinder Singh, Mohd Abdullaha, Gousia Chashoo, Sandip B Bharate, Prem N Gupta, Ravi Shankar* Design, synthesis and comparative analysis of triphenyl-1, 2, 3-triazoles as anti-proliferative agents Eur. J. Med. Chem., 2020, 207, 112813


Divya Dheer, Julien Nicolas, Ravi Shankar* Cathepsin-sensitive nanoscale drug delivery systems for cancer therapy and other diseases Adv Drug Deliv Rev., 2019;151-152:130-151
Divya Dheer, Rahul Gupta, Davinder Singh, Asmita Magotra, Gurdarshan Singh, Prem N Gupta, Ravi Shankar* Hyaluronic Acid-Tacrolimus Bioconjugate: Synthesis, Characterization, and Pharmacokinetic Investigation of an Acid-Responsive Macromolecular Prodrug ACS Applied Bio Materials, 2019,2, 4728-4736
Davinder Singh, Gulshan Kumar, Divya Dheer, Jyoti, Manoj Kushwaha, Qazi Naveed Ahmed,  Ravi Shankar*

BCl3-Mediated C–N, C–S, and C–O Bond Formation of Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Benzylic Ethers


ACS Omega. 2019 Mar 31; 4(3): 4530–4539.
Divya Dheer, Jyoti, Prem N Gupta, Ravi Shankar*

Tacrolimus: An updated review on delivering strategies for multifarious diseases

Eur J Pharm Sci., 2018, 114:217-227
Divya Dheer, Virender Singh, Ravi Shankar*

Medicinal attributes of 1,2,3-triazoles: Current developments


2017, 71:30-54

Divya Dheer, K. Ranjith Reddy, Santosh K. Rath, P. L. Sangwan, Parthasarathi Das, Ravi Shankar*

Cu(I)-catalyzed double C–H amination: synthesis of 2-iodo-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines

RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 38033–38036
Uma S Singh, Ram C Mishra, Ravi Shankar*, Chung K Chu

A Stereoselective Synthesis of 2′-Fluoro-6′-Methylene-Carbocyclic Adenosine via Vince Lactam

The Journal of organic chemistry, 2014, 3917-3923
Ravi Shankar, Abhilash Samykutty, Corinne Riggin, Sneha Kannan, Ursula Wenzel, Rohit Kolhatkar Cathepsin B Degradable Star Shaped Peptidic Macromolecules for Delivery of 2-methoxyestradiol Mol Pharm

 2013, 7;10,3776-88

Ravi Shankar, Bandana Chakravarti, Uma Sharan Singh, Mohd Imran Ansari, Shreekant Deshpande, Shailendra Kumar Dhar Dwivedi, Hemant Kumar Bid, Rituraj Konwar, Geetika Kharkwal, Vishal Chandra, Anila Dwivedi, K Hajela

Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,4,6-triaryl-2-pyranones as a potential new class of anti-breast cancer agents


Bioorg Med Chem, 2009;17(11):3847-56